Stephen R. Bowers
Stephen R. Bowers
Ph.D., Director for the Center for Security and Science, USA, with forty years of teaching experience at the university level and in international consultancy
Prospects for Russia’s Energy Market

Prospects for Russia’s Energy Market

Both during and after World War Two, analysts recognized the vital role played by energy resources – petroleum, natural gas, and coal – in calculating national power and a nation’s ability to endure an international crisis. Economic development and industrial production are largely determined by success in securing these crucial energy components. More recently, nuclear power has joined the ranks of essential energy resources.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Gazprom as Policy Instrument

Gazprom as Policy Instrument

A consistent challenge in international relations is the calculus of national power. Publications such as Military Balance have long made calculations based primarily on military considerations such as the numbers of tracked vehicles, infantry units, aircraft, naval vessels and other tangible assets.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Russian Relations with North Korea

Russian Relations with North Korea

The changing relationship between Russia and North Korea has its beginnings when the Soviet Union and China became rivals for influence within the Communist world. In the contemporary context, there is a triangle of complicated relations involving Russia, China and the United States. In an analysis of the history of Russian foreign policy, Michael Mandelbaum quoted former Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, who observed that no important international question could be resolved "without the Soviet Union or in opposition to it". While that was the standard during the Soviet era when the Kremlin was routinely opposed to Western initiatives, Russia is well past that powerful situation and now focuses on certain regions as being paramount while others are only peripheral concerns. What we now refer to as Russia’s post-Communist foreign policy began before the collapse of the USSR when Mikhail Gorbachev began to speak of values other than those of Marxism-Leninism as the driving forces of international policy. Under Gorbachev’s “new thinking”, there was a focus on universal values such as a clean environment and not simply the advancement of "international class struggle". For Gorbachev, it was important that the Kremlin be able to cooperate with the West and be integrated into Western institutions that helped shape the international economy. Of course, this innovation eliminated the USSR as the main benefactor of those states which once comprised the “Soviet bloc”. The Brezhnev doctrine was repudiated and the Soviet military would no longer guarantee the maintenance of Communist party regimes in East Europe. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Romania: A New Energy Power

Romania: A New Energy Power

While contemporary interest in energy questions focus on the Middle East, Romania has an impressive record in petroleum production which can be traced to 1517. Romania has a history of more than 150 years in oil extraction and in 1838 became the first country in the world with the production of 275 barrels of oil. It was followed by the United States in 1859 and Italy in 1862. By the 19th century, Romania had become one of the largest petroleum producers in Europe and Ploiești was among the best-known centers and was the site of the first Romanian refinery. Bucharest was the first city in the world illuminated with 1000 kerosene lamps, using kerosene which was produced in Ploiești.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


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OEconomica No. 1, 2016