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Pandora’s Botnet

Pandora’s Botnet

Cybersecurity is mentioned so often that it has become a cliché like climate change, with the other thing they have in common being a disagreement on what solutions are required, who is responsible for them and whether there is a responsibility in changing behaviour so as to minimize these risks. All of these difficult questions are left unanswered not just by the conceptual breadth and diversity of the issue at hand, but also by the ease with which dilettantes and people with agendas can spot facile solutions that obviate the need for difficult questions and answers. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


The Grand (Binary) Chessboard: Security, Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in the Cyber-era

The Grand (Binary) Chessboard: Security, Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in the Cyber-era

For each age that we think to define, there are words that describe the aspects or characteristics that are thought to define it best. The mid-twentieth century was known as the ‘Atomic Age’, when the results of research into nuclear physics were brought to the forefront with the detonation of nuclear bombs. Shortly thereafter, it was succeeded by the Space Age, with the drive to explore outer space and the competition between the world’s superpowers to develop technology to that end. Somewhere from the 1970s, the Information Age is believed to have begun, sprung by the Digital Revolution, with information technology playing an increasingly greater role in human affairs on an ever-growing number of levels: the economy, society, culture, language and politics. Thus, geographic distance became less and less relevant in defining human interaction, and physical contact was no longer an imperative for relations between people. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Essentials of Military Cyber Security Strategies

Essentials of Military Cyber Security Strategies

There are considerable, even astonishing, differences between the old and new versions of Department of Defense (DoD) cyber strategies. There is a four-year period between the two strategies and the new version explicitly states that the United States may take offensive actions against its persistent adversaries in cyber space. In this article, the major changes in the new strategy are shared with the reader. Secondly, cyber-attacks against the assets of the US in a four-year period have been summarized. Probably, these persistent attacks may be the primary reason for the offensive nature of the new strategy. This article also shares the essentials of a military cyber security strategy, which are in parallel with the evolution of the DoD cyber strategy.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Regulations Rather than Awareness Drive IT Security Efforts

Regulations Rather than Awareness Drive IT Security Efforts

According to a joint PwC Romania and Microsoft Romania survey launched today, “Security in the Digital World”, investments in cybersecurity are mostly driven by regulatory requirements instead of the organizations awareness of the actual and ongoing IT security threats. On the plus side, companies acting in highly regulated sectors such as the financial industry, for example, are usually better prepared to tackle cyber threats. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Cyber Conflict and International Law

Cyber Conflict and International Law

This article provides a brief overview of the international principles and standards applicable to cyber conflict. The main assumption is that globalization and technological development have changed the international order. These changes affect the nation states and principles and standards established to regulate their relations. The existing international law has limited applicability to regulate potential cyber conflict. Therefore, the International Community must take further steps to prevent these challenges.  More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


Terrorist Influence on Children in Cyberspace

Terrorist Influence on Children in Cyberspace

Terrorist groups are using cyberspace to propagandize ideological, political and religious concepts, for mutual communication and organization of activities, for planning attacks in the real world and for financing. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Telegrams have contributed to radicalization and recruitment, primarily of children and young people who accept the principles of terrorists and join their ranks. Modern ways of communication have enabled terrorists to successfully increase membership and their ranks without direct, physical contact. More

No. 7-8, Sep.-Dec. 2017 2017


The European Construction. Intellectual Project vs. Emergence

The European Construction. Intellectual Project vs. Emergence

Society is a component element of Popper’s third world, i.e., of the world formed by objectivizing the content of thoughts (ideas, theories, desirability, etc.), which is achieved mostly by social action. This means that the social “objects” (therefore the economic “objects” too) appear, become and disappear only by social action. One may say that the social ontology is, simply, the effect of the social praxeology, that society is a political product (supra-individual cause and effect). Therefore, the social construction is a teleological construction obtained by completing the universal causes (material, efficient, formal) with the final cause (purpose). Being a teleological construction, the social construction is an intellectual construction (intellectual project), therefore a normative process, not a natural process (as one of the parents of the European construction, Robert Schuman, believed). More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


Do Not Miss the EU’s Ringing Bell!

Do Not Miss the EU’s Ringing Bell!

Romania has to comply quite quickly with the documents produced and published by the European Commission with regard to the future of the European Union. As authors, we are advancing some proposals according to which Romanian policymakers should see the reformation of the EU as a good opportunity to match the country’s future with the EU’s destiny. We are advocating for immediate steps to be taken if Romania will effectively contribute to a more united Union with Romania in it. All European partners should consider seriously the principles of solidarity and cohesion and sharing responsibilities for a stronger Europe. The disrespect these stakeholders felt during the last crisis was echoing in the lack of political discipline in many economic and social engagements regarding the EU as a whole and every member state individually. Romania has to take the opportunity to be closer to the decision-making process within the EU, thinking seriously about becoming a member of the Eurozone by joining the Banking Union and adopting the euro.  More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


Euro Adoption: Chance and Challenge for Romania

Euro Adoption: Chance and Challenge for Romania

Like the other Central and Eastern European countries, Romania committed itself to adopting the euro as soon as it will meet the necessary conditions. The candidates have, however, a considerably large margin of manoeuvre in determining the moment when they will adopt the euro. Especially two accession criteria to the Monetary Union – harmonization of the legal framework with the Eurozone standards and the prior participation in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM) – are entirely under the sovereign control of the states. On the other hand, the institutions of the Eurozone have an important role in the euro adoption process, notably when it comes to assessing the extent to which a certain country is ready to participate in the ERM II. More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


Horror Vacui: The Crisis of Meaning of the Globalized World, as Demonstrated by the EU. A Jungian Approach

Horror Vacui: The Crisis of Meaning of the Globalized World, as Demonstrated by the EU. A Jungian Approach

What does globalization mean? But actually, is there any meaning to it? If not, could one be edified? By whom, on what grounds, how and, after all, why would it matter? I will partly explore all these questions, with special regard to the European Union and, maybe surprisingly, on the grounds of Jungian analytical psychology (with some tints of phenomenology and hermeneutics).  More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


Can Prosperity Be a Catalyst for Integration?

Can Prosperity Be a Catalyst for Integration?

More and more, in every segment of society, it has become clearer that the dimensions of societal progress must be better understood. As growth and development proved to be less relevant to measure societal progress, experts and decision-makers consider that another concept could be more relevant, namely economic prosperity. In the equation of the new concept, in addition to the economic dimension of development, the social one becomes essential. Reducing discrepancies across member states has always been one of the objectives of integration, but the evolution of each economy made it more difficult for the European entity to reach this goal. Another assumption is that European citizens consider that the European project started to undergo certain changes, a “social deficit”, so it is imperative to define the elements of the new social dimension of the Economic and Monetary Union.  More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


Does the European Union Pursue a Neo-Protectionist Trade Policy?

Does the European Union Pursue a Neo-Protectionist Trade Policy?

With the advancement of the multilateral negotiations, which resulted in a significant reduction in the level of customs duties and other measures implemented at the border, traditional means of protection have become less important in the public policy equation adopted and implemented by the economic powers. These paradigm shifts have created a favourable framework for the proliferation of non-tariff measures, which have gained a significant influence on trade flows. The main analytical objective of this article is to analyse the trade policy of the EU, bringing to the fore the trend of restricting trade flows with third countries. There is some evidence that, in the 21st century, the trade policy of the EU continues to have a flavour of neo-protectionism, with the trend of restricting trade flows gradually increasing, calling into question the achievement of the desideratum of multilateral trade liberalization.  More

No. 5-6, May.-Aug. 2017 2017


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OEconomica No. 1, 2016